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Full text of "History Of Ancient India"

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{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f2\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f3\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f4\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f5\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f6\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f7\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f1\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl2581\margr4331\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn2581\margrsxn4331\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li10\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-240\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw6\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 led  'peasant proprietorship*. But no owner could}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li5\fi0\ri62\sb0\sa0\sl-240\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw4\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 I or mortgage his part of the land without the con-it of the village council. He cultivated the fields \expndtw8 nself, but often employed labourers or slaves for \i\expndtw5 \\ \i0 purpose. There were no big estates or landlords. \expndtw-4 .e king received the tithes and his share, varying from \expndtw1 e-sixth to a twelfth,\super 1\nosupersub  of the produce in kind through \expndtw3 i headman \i (gamabhojaka). \i0 The latter was an im-\expndtw13 rtant person in the village. He carried on there \expndtw16 i business of the government. At that time he \expndtw-2 ,s probably either a hereditary officer or was elected \expndtw-3 the village council, which also helped him in maiii-\expndtw1 ning local peace and security. The village residents \expndtw-3 re endowed with a sturdy civic spirit. They united themselves in such undertakings as laying irrigation \expndtw2 innels, building mote-halls, rest-houses,, etc. The \expndtw-5 >men extended their full co-operation in these works \expndtw-3 public utility. On the whole, each village was self-\expndtw6 ficient, and life was simple and unsophisticated. \expndtw1 iere were few rich men arid no paupers. Crime was \expndtw-8 :e> but people sometimes suffered greatly from famines \expndtw-1 casioned by droughts or floods.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li5\fi0\ri0\sb127\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex60\expndtw12\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 ties       +>}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li2\fi194\ri0\sb82\sa0\sl-240\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-9\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 Very few cities \i (nagaras \i0 or \i nigamas) \i0 are mentioned \expndtw12 Buddhist literature. Of these, the most impor-\expndtw-5 it were : Baranasi (Benares), Rajagaha (Rajagriha), \expndtw-7 iusa,mbl, Savatthi (Sravastl), Vesall (VaiSall), Campa, \expndtw1 xila, Ayojjha or Ayodhya, Ujjeni (Ujjain), Mathura, \expndtw13 ;. Imperial Pataliputra was yet to be founded. \loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f1\cchs0 \'95 \expndtw6\hich\af0\dbch\af1\loch\f0\cchs0 ie towns were generally fortified, and the houses \expndtw13 :re built of wood and brick. The poor then, as w, lived in meagre dwellings, the rich in im-}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li0\fi103\ri22\sb197\sa0\sl-202\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw6\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 1\nosupersub  Manu says that the king should take as his share 1/5oth of :le and gold from merchants and i/6th or i/8th or i/nth of the \expndtw3 >duce from cultivators \i (Manusmriti^ \i0 VII, 130). Besides, we \expndtw1 aetimes hear of special levies, forced labour and other exactions.}\par }